However, studies that examine the potential pleiotropic and nonglycemic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on various cells and tissues may help to understand and interpret the difference in the observed cardiovascular side effects in some of the clinical trials. Recently, many reviews have tried to clarify the effects caused by DPP-4 inhibitors. They interact strongly with the heart, vascular system, kidney, liver, neuroendocrine system, immune system, and hematopoietic system affecting hormones or second messengers like brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), substance P, activation of chemokine and cytokine pathways, intracellular calcium concentrations, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) shown in different animal models in vivo and ex vivo [ 28 – 32 ]. Interactions of DPP-4 inhibitors with the cardiovascular system and cardiomyocytes were successfully revealed, yet a direct link between DPP-4 inhibitors and its effects on cardiac contractility and/or electrophysiological function is still unknown, and the corresponding downstream mechanisms have yet to be determined. Therefore, studies that explored effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on cardiovascular system are of particular interest.
Steroids can make pimples pop up and hair fall out. They can make guys grow breasts and girls grow beards. Steroids can cause livers to grow tumors and hearts to clog up. They can even send users on violent, angry rampages. In other words, steroids throw a body way out of whack. Steroids do make users bulk up, but the health risks are high. It's true, on steroids biceps bulge; abs ripple; and quads balloon. But that's just on the outside. Steroid users may be very pleased when they flex in the mirror, but they may create problems on the inside. These problems may hurt them the rest of their lives. As a matter of fact steroid use can shorten their lives.
Calls for public reporting of cardiovascular outcomes have been growing, with transparency being a fundamental component of quality improvement in an emerging era of value based health care. Advocates of public reporting maintain that patients must be able to make informed choices about where to receive their care and that public reporting can drive quality improvement efforts and result in better care. In a seminal initiative, with the endorsement of the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology(CAIC), the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) in partnership with the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) are slated to publicly-report PCI-related processes as well as outcome measures (30-day mortality and readmission) at the 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Congress. This workshop will: