In the traditional tests for antipsychotic effect, eg antagonism of stereotypic behaviour induced by dopamine agonists, the chemical groups of antipsychotics mentioned reveal equal but dosage-dependent activity. However, the antistereotypic effects of phenothiazines, butyrophenones, diphenylbutylpiperidines, and benzamides is strongly counteracted by the anticholinergic drug scopolamine, while the antistereotypic effect of thioxanthenes, eg flupentixol is not, or only very slightly, influenced by concomitant treatment with anticholinergics.
Several guidelines have emerged over the years, as summarised by Hadji et al 8 , to aid the assessment of fracture risk in women receiving BC treatment, and management of AIBL. In the UK, the guidance in use and recommended by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) is a UK expert group consensus position statement issued in 2008 (Guidance for the Management of Breast Cancer Treatment-Induced Bone Loss) 9 . This includes two treatment algorithms for the assessment and management of bone loss in early BC: one for women with adjuvant treatment-induced premature menopause and the other for postmenopausal women starting adjuvant AI.