For both men and women, an alternative to testosterone replacement is low-dose clomifene treatment, which can stimulate the body to naturally increase hormone levels while avoiding infertility and other side effects that can result from direct hormone replacement therapy.  This therapy has only been shown helpful for men with secondary hypogonadism. Recent studies have shown it can be safe and effective monotherapy for up to 2 years in patients with intact testicular function and impaired function of the HPTA( http:///ijir/journal/v15/n3/full/ ). Clomifene blocks estrogen from binding to some estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, thereby causing an increased release gNRH and subsequently LH from the pituitary. Clomifene is a Selective Estrogen Reuptake Modulator (SERM). Generally clomifene does not have adverse effects at the doses used for this purpose. Clomifene at much higher doses is used to induce ovulation and has significant adverse effects in such a setting.
Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands of both sexes and in the testes of males and the ovaries of females. Testosterone is largely responsible for the formation and maintenance of male sex characteristics, including both the larger bone and muscle development seen in males. The testosterone levels in humans are regulated by hormones released from the brain; in males the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain increase testosterone during puberty and male characteristics develop (for example, penile enlargement, facial hair, interest in sex).
Testosterone therapy can occur in many forms, from injectable and transdermal creams and patches and even subcutaneous pellets implanted under the skin. In the end it is true, with each form of therapy you are receiving the same testosterone hormone but the efficiency and effectiveness of each form varies greatly. Without question injectable testosterone is the most efficient and effective form of testosterone therapy, as through injections the needed testosterone is placed directly into the blood. While transdermal medications will absorb into the blood many men find difficulty in achieving proper levels with this form making it the least desirable of the four. If injections are not an option for whatever reason testosterone implant pellets are a fine choice and often all the testosterone an individual will need.